This absolute recoil upon itself is Essence as a) Positing Reflection. These different Qualities form Nodes on a line of gradual Quantitative increase or decrease. The hidden, internal unity that bound the two moments of Identity and Difference together despite their apparent mutual indifference becomes explicit once they are mediated from the outside by Likeness and Unlikeness. Kaum 20 Jahre nachdem Kants kritische Philosophie die übermütigen Höhenflüge der abstrakten Spekulation in die Schranken gewiesen hatte, setzte Hegel zum großen Gegenschlag an. Limitation and the Ought are the twin, self-contradictory moments of the Finite. Hegel formuliert in der Vorrede zur zweiten Ausgabe der „Wissenschaft der Logik“ seine selbstgestellte Aufgabe: Es geht darum, „[d]as Reich des Gedankens philosophisch, d.i. Both these terms, in being absolutely negative, are identical to one another: Essence is Illusory Being and Illusory Being is Essence. Auf der Phänomenologie des Geistes aufbauend soll hier eine ontologisch-metaphyische Logik entwickelt werden, die an die antike Logos-Philosophie anschließt. [88], So in its relation to Essence, Being has lost its being, has become Illusory. Hegels „Wissenschaft der Logik“ (1812/1816) zählt zu den einflussreichsten philosophischen Schriften der Neuzeit, aber auch zweihundert Jahre nach seinem Erscheinen liegen bloß partielle Interpretationsansätze vor, die sich obendrein in wesentlichen Punkt Diese Webseite verwendet Cookies. Since for Hegel the underlying structure of all of reality is ultimately rational, logic is not merely about reasoning or argument but rather is also the rational, structural core of all of reality and every dimension of it. [9], Pure Being and Pure Nothing are the same, and yet absolutely distinct from each other. Pure Quantity is a One, but a One made up of the Many having been Attracted back into each other out of their initial Repulsion. If the constant is given, then the Quantum on any one side of the ratio could be any Number, and the Number on the other side will automatically be determined. [39], This (a) One in its Own Self, standing in negative relation to all its preceding moments, is entirely differentiated from each of them. One side of the ratio, y, is a certain Amount relative to the other side, x, which serves as the Unit whereby this Amount is measured. Hegel heute Zur „Wissenschaft der Logik“ (II)* Von L. Bruno PUNTEL (München) Angesichts der sich intensivierenden Beschäftigung mit Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik (= WL) wird es immer schwieriger, die ständig an wachsende Literatur über dieses Werk zu verfolgen und zu diskutieren. Wissenschaft der Logik by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Hegel: New. The Essentialities are determined Essence and, as we know, determination by definition involves negation. It may take up to 1-5 minutes before you receive it. This unbridgeable gap found within the science of reason was, in his view, a carryover from everyday, phenomenal, unphilosophical consciousness.[1]. At the end of the preface he wrote that "Logic is the thinking of God." Both Qualitative and Quantitative Determinate Being have Limits that demarcate the boundary between their affirmative presence and their negation, but in the former the Limit determines its Being to be of a specific Quality unique to itself, whereas in the latter, made up as it is of homogeneous Units that remain identical to each other no matter which side of the Limit they fall upon, the Limit serves only to enclose a specific Amount of Units, e.g., a hundred, and to distinguish it from other such aggregates. A ratio, such as x:y, is a Direct Ratio if both terms of the ratio are delimited by a single Quantum, a constant, k (what Hegel calls in the language of his day the "exponent" of the ratio). The One, though, as negatively related to all aspects of Quality excepting its own Quality of being the Void, cannot take on a Qualitative determinateness like Determinate Being did. [36], As a consequence of having overcome this relativity, however, both sides of the relationship between Something and Other are now also in equal relation to the Infinite Being that they have become Ideal moments of. This In-finite, then, is not the pure Infinite, but merely the non-Finite. Erstes Kapitel. [6] This Pure Knowing is simply Knowing as Such, and as such, has for its first thought product Being as Such, i.e., the purest abstraction from all that is (although, importantly, not distinct from, or alongside, all that is), having "no diversity within itself nor with any reference outwards. Band 5, Frankfurt a. M. 1979, S. 11.: Erster Teil. Die vierte Figur: A-A-A, oder der mathematische Schluß. General Notion of Logic. This beyond, in which they are unified, is the Infinite. Dasjenige, was vor diesem Zeitraum Metaphysik hieß, ist sozusagen mit Stumpf und Stiel ausgerottet worden und aus der Reihe der Wissenschaften verschwun… Real Measures, however, are also subject to internal alteration akin to what has already been discussed in "Measure" above, i.e., that its Quality can be maintained only within a certain Quantitative range beyond which it undergoes a sudden "leap" into another Quality. Hegel kam nicht mehr dazu, auch die 1807 zuletzt veröffentlichte subjektive Logik, bestehend aus der Wesenslogik und der Begriffslogik, erneut zu bearbeiten. [61], Although a particular Quantum, of its own inner necessity, points beyond itself, this beyond is necessarily an Other Quantum. "[7], Nothing, specifically Pure Nothing, "is simply equality with itself, complete emptiness, absence of all determination and content." [47], Repulsion and Attraction are relative to one another insofar as the One is taken either as the beginning or result of their mediation with one another. The other moment, that of Repulsion, is also retained in Quantity as Discreteness. [69], "Measure is the simple relation of the quantum to itself ... ; the quantum is thus qualitative." The chapter on ground concludes by describing how these elements, properly conditioned, ultimately will bring a fact into existence (a segue to the subsequent chapter on existence). The constant would seem to bring these moments back into unity with each other, but in actuality, it too can serve only as either Amount or Unit. Hegel shows that the true idea can only be based upon valid reasoning and objectivity. Hegel's Page 6/29 This total dependence on Essence means that there is nothing any longer in Being itself upon which any of its own determinations can be based, i.e., there is no longer any mediation within Being. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. This self-determination constitutes the Quality of the Quantum, and finally demonstrates the full significance of the essential identity of Quality and Quantity. It is that through which Essence generates itself as what it is, namely, the purely negative as regards Being. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel; Vom Begriff im Allgemeinen. Therefore, Difference is b) Diversity.[96]. "[3] The German word Hegel employed to denote this post-dualist form of consciousness was Begriff (traditionally translated either as Concept or Notion). [63], The Quantitative Infinite negates Quantum, and Quantum in turn negates Infinity. Likeness and Unlikeness are both in fact only Likeness. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Wissenschaft der Logik Inhaltsverzeichnis. Hegel characterizes this sort of reasoning as a "witch's circle" in which "phenomena and phantoms run riot.". [31], This impasse can only be overcome, as usual, via sublation. Publication date 1812 Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0 Topics bub_upload, Logic Publisher Nürnberg : Johann Leonhard Schrag Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of University of California Language German. Therefore, the Positive and Negative are in fact the same and this, their sameness—which nevertheless includes their Contradiction—is their Essence as Ground.[99]. This unity is called Being-for-Self. However, a Number is also a specific Determinate Being that encloses an aggregate of Units while excluding from itself other such aggregates. Seine Lehre vom Sein, vom Wesen und vom Begriff ist zentral für das Denken vieler Phiosophen der Gegenwart. "explanation of") some phenomena, but we may later find upon critical examination that this phenomenon supposedly explained by centrifugal force is actually used to infer centrifugal force in the first place. So, although through their relationship Something and Other mutually determine each other's inner Qualities, they do not have the same effect on the Infinite Being―be it God, spirit or ego (in the Fichtean sense)―to which they are now objects. 250,00 € / $350.00 / £227.50* Add to Cart. Broken into components, form taken together with essence gives us "a substrate for the ground relation" (Hegel seems to mean relation in a quasi-universal sense). "This is to be considered as the essential nature of reflection and as the specific, original ground of all activity and self-movement." ID Numbers Open Library OL24138159M Band 5, Frankfurt a. M. 1979, S. 11. For example, even though we can determine the Quantitative relationship between space and time in the example of a falling body, each of them can still be considered on its own, independent of the other. Table of Contents. 6. [58], Although thus differentiated from each other, Extensive and Intensive magnitude are essentially (b) the same. Natürliche Logik heißt man den natürlichen Verstand, den der Mensch überhaupt von Natur hat, und den unmittelbaren Gebrauch, den er davon macht. The Being-for-Other of Finitude has become the (b) Being-for-One of Infinity. The Relation of Self-Subsistent Measures, Subjective Logic or the Doctrine of the Notion, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. That these "infinites" are each the Spurious Quantitative Infinite is evident in the fact that "great" and "small" designate Quanta, whereas the Infinite by definition is not a Quantum. Content is what we perceive. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Therefore, while the Essentialities are absolutely Identical in their shared nothingness, their absolute negativity, they are equally absolutely Different in their determinations, their relative negativity. All the determinations of Being covered in the first third of the Science of Logic are no longer self-subsistent, but only "are" at all as negations of Essence. Hegel toimi jonkun aikaa journalistina ja meni naimisiin Marie von Tucherin kanssa vuonna 1811. $74.73. Download books for free. Fragt man sich, zu welchen Ergebnissen die "But quantity is not only a quality; it is the truth of quality itself." Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. Here Hegel introduces his Notion within which he extends Kant's basic schemes of judgement and syllogism classification. Free shipping . This Other is another Quantum, of a greater or lesser Amount, which, in turn, immediately points beyond itself to yet an Other Quantum ad infinitum. Unlike mere Quantum, however, the Real Measure of a thing is inwardly determined, and so preserves itself somewhat in alteration. 31. Just as the One was completely indifferent to the other Ones of the Many yet depended on them for its existence, each Degree is indifferent to every other Degree, yet they are externally related to one another in ascending or descending flow through a scale of Degrees. Wissenschaft der Logik by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, 1874, Clarendon Press edition, in English Aufhebung in Hegel’s ‘Wissenschaft der Logik’ Although the two volumes of ‘ Wissenschaft der Logik ’ (1st ed. Although as a whole, the Positive and Negative comprise a unity, the Positive on its own is also a self-subsistent being, as is the Negative on its own. Der Begriff. Philosophy. Only the second edition of Science of Logic is translated into English. These two aspects, however, are the constitutive moments of one and the same overall determination. This page was last edited on 23 September 2020, at 13:36. The Difference of Reflection, therefore, is different in relation to its own self, and so it is not relative but a) Absolute Difference. These moments now re-emerge as Being-in-Itself, i.e., Something as Something only insofar as it is in opposition to the Other; and Being-for-Other, i.e., Something as Something only insofar as it is in relation to the Other. This is what constitutes the self-propelled (c) Alteration of Quantum. Being becomes emphasized, and, as Quality, is Reality; Nothing, or Non-Being, is concealed in Being's background serving only to delimit it as a specific Quality distinct from others, and, in so doing, is Negation in General, i.e., Quality in the form of a deficiency. Series:Klassiker Auslegen 27. 31. Both Limitation and the Ought point beyond the Finite something, the one negatively and the other positively. This gesture is made explicit in the Quantitative Ratio, where two Quanta are brought into relationship with one another in such a way that neither one in itself is self-determined, but in relating to each other, they Qualitatively determine something beyond themselves, e.g., a line or a curve.[65]. As developed, it included the fullest description of his dialectic. However, once we have established a Quantitative ratio between two or more Qualities, we can give this ratio an independent existence that Quantitatively unites things that are Qualitatively distinct. Hegel points out that "the door is wide open" to infinite determinations that are external to the thing itself (recall that real ground is external). What this means is that, in the face of its own Limitation, the very Quality that defined the Something in the first place ceases to be in any opposition to the Other, which is to say that it no longer strictly is this Quality but now Ought to be this Quality. By 1831, Hegel completed a greatly revised and expanded version of the ‘Doctrine of Being’, but had no time to revise the rest of the book. B. Eintheilung. Volltext Philosophie: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Werke. Wissenschaft der Logik by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, unknown edition, ... Wissenschaft der Logik This edition published in 1812 by Johann Leonhard Schrag in Nürnberg. This mutual inclusion and exclusion cancels out the both of them. From the standpoint of this Ideal One, both Repulsion and Attraction now presuppose each other, and, taken one step further, each presupposes itself as mediated by the other. Although it is often tempting to assume so, there is in actuality no object that can serve as a completely universal standard of measurement, i.e., be pure Quantity. (Some light spotting.) This is because Essence is in itself absolute negativity, nothingness, and it follows that any determination made therein will share in this negativity and itself be essentially nothing. Yet another duality emerges at this point. August 1770 in Stuttgart; † 14. From the Ideal standpoint of Infinity, Being-for-Self has become free from this burden and so is absolutely determined Being. Hrsg. [26] The flip side of this, though, is that the Limit also takes its negative along with it back into the Something, this (the result of negating the Limit) being the Other yet now as posited in the Something as that Something’s very own Determination. Und doch widersprechen sich selbst 200 Jahre bestimmte Interpretationen des Werkes vollkommen. Originally, Quantity differentiated itself from Quality in that it was indifferent to what was external to it, that which it quantified. So if we are an external party concerned with a specific determination of Identity, the moment of Difference, though intrinsic to the fact of this Identity, is very far from our minds. ), So, similar to Becoming above, the Positive and the Negative immediately transition the one into the other: the Positive includes the Negative which immediately excludes the Positive; the resulting Negative however also includes the Positive which in turn excludes the Negative and so on ad infinitum. a. Schluß der Allheit. a. Schluß der Allheit. Converted file can differ from the original. Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik) ... Hegel: Religion, Economics, and the Politics of Spirit, 1770–1807. Science of Logic (SL; German: Wissenschaft der Logik, WdL), first published between 1812 and 1816, is the work in which Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel outlined his vision of logic. This standpoint is (c) the Infinity of Quantum from where it is seen that Infinity, initially the absolute Other of Quantum, essentially belongs to it and in fact determines it as a particular Quality alongside all the other Determinate Beings that had long since been sublated. As moments, Identity and Difference require each other and are bound up with one another: one term could not exist without the other. [17] (Hegel's view is in this way contrasted with Kant's noumenon, the unknowable "thing in itself": Being-in-itself taken in isolation from Being-for-Other is nothing but an empty abstraction and to ask "what it is" is to ask a question made impossible to answer. Wissenschaft der Logik, vol 2. b. Schluß der Induktion. Science of Logic also incorporates the traditional Aristotelian syllogism: It is conceived as a phase of the "original unity of thought and being" rather than as a detached, formal instrument of inference. Previously, Quantum was held to be indifferent to the Quality of that which it quantified. Wissenschaft der Logik by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, unknown edition, ... Wissenschaft der Logik This edition published in 1812 by Johann Leonhard Schrag in Nürnberg. [88], The Difference of Reflection must be distinguished from the Otherness of Determinate Being. For Finite things, "the hour of their birth is the hour of their death. The Void can be said to be the Quality of the One. Because each of these two moments are self-related in this way, they do not mutually determine one another. It is the Ideal One of Infinite Being, which, for Hegel, actually makes it more "real" than the merely Real Many. This Something gains its Qualitative determination from the Quantitative (a) combination between two Measures immanent in it, i.e., volume and weight. In fact, the specific Quality of a particular Real Measure is in part registered by the other Real Measures it has a special Affinity for, that is, how it responds to Quantitative Alteration. [13] Within Quality, however, Reality and Negation are still distinct from one another, are still mediated, just like Being and Nothing were in Becoming. Hegel thinks that matter itself "cannot be seen": only a determination of matter resulting from a specific form can be seen. Out of this nullity, the unity of the two sides is restored in the following way. This absolute Identity rests on the absolute negativity that unites Essence with its Essentialities. Erster Band: Die Lehre vom Sein (1832). Der Schluß der Reflexion. Vorrede zur ersten Ausgabe. This Hegel calls (b) the Infinite Progress. Since any aspect may be externally selected to demonstrate the Likeness and Unlikeness of any two things, these terms really only refer, not intrinsically to their objects, but to themselves only and, as likewise self-referred, are indistinguishable from each other independent of their objects. Its negation, what it is not, is now "cut off" from it and becomes another Something, which, from the first Something's point of view, is an Other in general. This Being is not just another Finite Other, but is the One for which they are and of which they are a part. Erstes Kapitel. Excerpt: Introduction. However, as we have seen, a Real Measure also has an internal relation that gives it a self-subsistence that is indifferent to any external relation. Complete ground Hegel says is the "total ground-relation.". Thus the only way to see matter is by combining matter with form (given a literal reading of his text). The self-exposition of this unified consciousness, or Notion, follows a series of necessary, self-determined stages in an inherently logical, dialectical progression. Die Wirklichkeit der Vernunft. Die Wissenschaft der Logik. Simply put ground is the "essence of essence," which for Hegel arguably means the lowest, broadest rung in his ontology because ground appears to fundamentally support his system. November 1831 in Berlin. Die objektive Logik. [53], Quantity is the One, but containing within it the moments of the Many, Repulsion, Attraction, etc. Because of this, it falls back into the determination of the Something with a Limit peculiar to itself. Illusory Being, though not Essence itself, nevertheless belongs entirely to Essence. Quality, then, comprises both what a Determinate Being is and is not, viz., that which makes it determinate in the first place. This is Contradiction. Yet they are held to be separate by this stage of thought and so the two terms are eternally stuck in an empty oscillation back and forth from one another. Hegel considered it one of his major works and therefore kept it up to date through revision. "[34], As having been sublated, the mediation which was performed by the True Infinite between the Finite and the Infinite now has resulted in their immediate unity. Wissenschaft der Logik by Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1770-1831. "[30], This affirmation of the Infinite, however, carries with it a negative relation to an other, the Finite. Das Bewußtsein ist der Geist als konkretes, und zwar in der Äußerlichkeit befangenes Wissen; aber die Fortbewegung dieses Gegenstandes beruht allein, wie die Entwicklung alles natürlichen und geistigen Lebens, auf der Natur der reinen We- Wissenschaft der Logik - Band I: Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, The Perfect Library: 9781512353044: Books - If possible, download the file in its original format. It itself does not determine its own inner fluctuations, i.e., is not self-determining. Auf der Phänomenologie des Geistes aufbauend soll hier eine ontologisch-metaphysische Logik entwickelt werden, die an die antike Logos-Philosophie anschließt. It is merely the abstract expression of the unity that underlies their totality. Die objective Logik: 3. The category of Identity itself, however, is not determined by whatever it is that it is applied to, but by its reflection off of Difference back into itself. In its own self-differentiation, it can only relate to itself as another self identical to it, that is, as another One. Seen from within the One there is only one One, but at the same time the One only exists in the first place through its negative external relation to other Ones, i.e., for there to be the one One there must be Many Ones that mutually Exclude one another. Things are Like each other insofar as they are not Unlike each other and vice versa: the two terms are mutually exclusive insofar as they refer to the same thing, but in themselves, apart from the things they refer to, there is no difference between them. At the same time, however, they completely exclude one another and in fact rely on this exclusion for their self-subsistence. b. Schluß der Induktion. Editor's choice ... Wissenschaft der Logik, vol 2 by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Download Read more. Centrifugal force, Hegel states as one of several examples drawn from the physical sciences, Since each Real Measure within a series forms such a constant with every other member in that series, any individual series in which a particular Real Measure serves as the Unit can be made commensurable with any other series with a different Real Measure as Unit. "[2] Once thus liberated from duality, the science of thinking no longer requires an object or a matter outside of itself to act as a touchstone for its truth, but rather takes the form of its own self-mediated exposition and development which eventually comprises within itself every possible mode of rational thinking. "At the name of the infinite, the heart and the mind light up, for in the infinite the spirit is not merely abstractly present to itself, but rises to its own self, to the light of thinking, of its universality, of its freedom. L. Rauch 1983. Now, however, arising out of their mutual destruction comes a self-subsistence that is common to the both of them. )[18], Something is now no longer only an isolated something, but is in both positive and negative relationship to the Other. 275 S. [REVIEW] Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik, Ldszlö Erdei & Der Schluß - 1990 - Hegel-Studien 25:161. Georg Hegel, Enzyklopädie der Philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse. So, with a so-called "Quantitative" change, "one factor becomes preponderant as the other diminishes with accelerated velocity and is overpowered by the first, which therefore constitutes itself the sole self-subsistent Quality." However, in accordance with the measure relations developed so far, each of its moments are in reciprocal, quantitatively determined ratios with one another. Sekundærlitteratur. [70], Insofar as Quantity describes the upper and lower Limits between which a specific Quality can maintain itself, it serves as a (a) Rule. However, in Being, this movement was between a positive—pure Being—and a negative—pure Nothingness.